Pooran succeeds retired Pollard as West Indies white-ball captain
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The 34-year-old Pollard retired from international cricket last month.
Pooran led the side in Pollard's absence during last year's T20 series win over Australia.
"To be named captain is indeed the highlight of my career so far and I want to drive the team forward to accomplish great things on the field for our fans and loyal supporters."
Wicketkeeper Pooran, also a destructive batter, is currently playing for Sunrisers Hyderabad in the Indian Premier League.
"We believe Nicholas is ready for the challenge of leading our white ball teams given his experience, performances, and the respect he has within the playing group," said Windies director of cricket Jimmy Adams.
"The experience he has gathered playing in various franchise leagues around the world was also a factor in the decision to recommend him for the T20 captaincy."
Pooran's first fixture in the role is expected to be three one-day internationals in the Netherlands later this month. This year's T20 World Cup in Australia starts in October.