Serena returns to tennis in Eastbourne doubles after year out
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Williams, a 23-time Grand Slam singles champion, was back in action for the first time since she made a tearful exit from Wimbledon last year.
The 40-year-old suffered a leg injury during her Wimbledon first round match against Aliaksandra Sasnovich and had not been seen on court since.
Williams and Jabeur, who is third in the WTA singles rankings, faced Spain's Sara Sorribes Tormo and Marie Bouzkova of the Czech Republic.